Tosanaji Keris
A note on pronunciation
This is not the place to try to give lessons in Indonesian or Javanese, but it may be of
assistance if you have a broad idea of what the languages sound like.
In a word:- think Italian.
If you give the words shown in the glossary a phonetic pronunciation, not dissimilar
to the pronunciation used in speaking Italian, you will not be all that far off track.

Alas-Alasan pattern -Forest pattern.
Banyumas-A city in Central Java. Formerly the site of a kraton.
Batu Lapak-Saddle stone. One of the 'Royal' pamors.
Banyu Tetes- dripping water.
Blarak-Dragged palm frond.
Blewah-A pendok with an open front.
Branggah-The Jogjakarta form of ladrangan wrongko.
Brojol-A straight keris form bearing only a blumbangan.
Bugis-The seafaring people of Southern Sulawesi.
Buntel Mayat – usually this pamor name is a given as “buntel mayit”, which means
“corpse wrapping”, however, according to Empu Suparman Supawijaya this common usage
is incorrect and the name of this pamor motif is actually “buntel mayat” which means
“slanted wrapping”, and this describes precisely the form of this pamor.
Buntut-The swelling sometimes found at the end of the gandar.
Cecekan -The small areas of carving (normally 2) on a Central Javanese planar ukiran
which are said to be the stylised representation of a kala face.
Chatoyant (Eng.)-Possessing a changeable luster, like that of a cat's eye.
Dapur or DhapurThe "dapur" of a keris is its form.
Disambung- connected; a pesi which is “disambung” has been lengthened by having a
new piece welded to it.
Disrumbung-when a pesi is frail it is protected by fixing a small cone of metal over it with
damar. Such a pesi is “disrumbung.”
East Indies-The area which now constitutes most of Indonesia; the Malay Archipelago.
Gabilan-A heavily carved form of Madura wrongko.
Gandar-Lower part of a wrongko.
Gandik-See illustration of keris.
Ganggeng Kanyut-Trailing water weeds.
Gayaman-A non-formal wrongko.
Godi-The twine binding used in place of a metal ferrule on tombak intended for use,
rather than display.
Godean-A village near Jogjakarta which has made keris and other wesi aji since the time
of the  second kingdom of Mataram.
Gonjo-See illustration of keris.
Gonjo Iras-Literally:-two things combined into one.A keris blade with the gonjo forged
into the blade.
Gunungan-The mountain figure used by a dalang to open a wayang play. It is a symbol of
the universe.
Gusen- or kusen; a border or frame; in a keris, the edge bevel, framing the body of the
Gresik- North East Java city.
Ilat-ilatan - literally a "tongue", it is the thin piece of metal used to back the krawangan
face of an open-work pendok.
Jogjakarta (Jogja)-Kingdom established in Central Java in 1756.
Jejeran- keris handle.
Kajoran -The tangguh referring to keris made in Central Java between the periods of
Mataram and Kartosuro.
Kayu - wood
Kebak Pedaringan-A very dense variation of wos wutah pamor, which covers the blade
almost edge to edge.
Kelap Lintah-Wriggling leech.
Kemalo- enamel
Kinatah-Also'Tinatah'.Decorative gold work applied to a blade.
Kepet-A flange sometimes found at the foot of a Madura pendok.
Kikik-a small, long haired dog.Often used to describe a singo-barong.
Koripan-A tangguh referring to keris made near Jogjakarta after 1755 and up to about
Kraton-A Javanese walled palace.
Krawang-open work
Ladrangan-A formal wrongko;see illustration.
Landean- the shaft of a tombak.
Lis-A collar found on some pendok.
Lung wideng-River crab tendrils. In a mendak a pattern of swirling, granulated balls.
Madura-An island off the North Coast of Java.
Mamas-A nickel alloy, similar to nickel silver.
Mataram Senopaten-keris classification associated with Kingdom of Mataram under
Melati Rinonce- or melati rirenteng, melati serenteng; melati is the jasmine flower, the
second word, whichever it may be carries the connotation of being strung together, so
freely:- “string of jasmine flowers”.
Mendak-Small ring fitted below handle.
Metuk or Methuk-A small round, shaped ballaster at the base of a tombak blade which
forms the transition from blade to shaft
Miring-crossways.Pamor miring is pamor where the billet has been manipulated prior to
welding to the blade core so that the layers of pamor are at 90 degrees to the blade core.
Mlumah-laying down. Pamor mlumah is pamor where the layers are parrallel to the core
of the blade.
Naga-The mythical dragon of Hindu cultures.
Nguceng mati- The gonjo form that has a sharp pointed buntut urang.
Ngulit semangka – or kulit semangka; water melon skin. A random pamor like wos
wutah, only with fewer layers
Pajajaran-A Javanese kingdom which ceased to exist prior to 1575.
Pakubuwono X-Susuhunan of Surakarta, Died 1939.
Palembang-A city in South Sumatra.
Pamekesan-A kabupaten in Madura.
Pamor-The pattern produced in a blade by pattern welding,etching ,staining.
Parijoto-Swollen rice grains. A mendak pattern featuring a circle of small balls.
Patra- see cecekan.
Pawakan- the overall visual impression of a keris blade.
Pedang-A sword.
Pedang Sabet-A slashing sword.
Pedang Suduk(also tusuk)-A stabbing sword.
Penewu – an administrator with control over village heads; literally somebody in charge
of a thousand men.
Pendok-Metal cover for lower part of scabbard.
Pengantin-The bride and bridegroom (P.Wadon:bride, P.Lanang:bridegroom)
Pusaka-an heirloom or revered object. In Indonesian thought the ramifications of
something being “pusaka” are far reaching.
Puser-A swirl. In pamor, a swirl of pamor miring set into, or on top of, the base material of
the blade.
Puthut- a pupil or disciple of a holy man or hermit, in keris belief, also a Hindu or
Buddhist priest.
Raksasa-Mythical demon.
Ricikan-The features of a keris blade.
Ron Duru-Leaf of the duru tree. Properly ron genduru.
Raja Gundala-also 'rojo gundolo', ‘gundolorojo’; a pamor motif with various forms, all
being able to be interpreted---with considerable imagination---as a human-like or animal-
like form; talismanically this pamor can protect against black magic and torment by ghosts
or spirits.
Sanak- Related. Pamor or iron which achieves its effect thru weld joints rather than  high
contrast. We  would call damascus steel "sanak".       
Sandang Walikat-"Sandang" means "dress", "walikat" means shoulder blade, "sandang
walikat" describes the type of narrow wrongko that is similar in form to the human scapula.
This wrongko form is used for storage and for everyday wear.
Sebit rontal- (sebet rontal, nyebit rontal) the gonjo form that has a wide buntut urang
and curved sides.
Selut-A cup, usually metal, which encloses the base of the handle, and sits on the mendak.
Semburatan- "sembur" is something sprayed from the mouth; a pattern on timoho wood
that resembles the dark spotted spray from tobacco or betelnut spittle is referred to as
"timoho semburatan".
Semen Tretes-A terraced garden.
Singo Barong-A lion-dog. Similar in appearance to the lion-dogs which guard Chinese  
Sirah Sawer- sirah=snake (high Javanese), sirah= name of pommel end of Javanese keris
hilt, thus broadly"hilt with snake at pommel".
Slorokan-Describes a type of pendok fitted with a "slorok", or "drawer", i.e. a  sliding
front panel.
Solo-Common name for the old Central Javanese kingdom of Surakarta.Now a
Sopal and Tunjung-The tip and ferrule of a lance shaft.
Sorsoran-The base of a keris blade, to the point (poyuhan) of the sogokan.
Suasa - (spellings vary) rose gold, usually of low gold content, can also be applied to
pinchbeck, which is an alloy of copper and zinc
Suminep-An old kraton city in Madura.
Surakarta-The Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat, seat of the house of Mataram located at
Sala  (Solo),Central Java.       
Tambal-Added to.
Tangguh- The Javanese system of blade classification which uses stylistic and material
characteristics to place a blade in a historical or geographic context.
Tangkis- a means of warding off, or a shield; a blade is said to have pamor tangkis  when
it carries a different pamor motif on each of its blade faces, and this is considered to be a
talisman against black magic.
Templek-when applied to a pendok it denotes a construction utilising a fretwork panel
affixed to the front of the pendok. Normally the highest quality pendok style.
Timoho-A wood of mottled yellow and brown appearance, which is one of the most highly
regarded traditional woods for wrongkos,now virtually extinct.Several varieties are
Tirto Tejo- Sparkling waters.
Trembalu-A highly esteemed wood used for wrongkos, now virtually extinct, and  
characterised by its chatoyant grain.                                                             
Tuban-An old trading kingdom on the North Coast of Java.
Tunggaksemi-Lit.: a new sprout on an stump. This is the most usual form of Jogjakarta
Ukiran-Keris handle.
Uler Lulut-a pamor motif, uler means caterpillar, lulut has several interpretations
carrying a connotations of  tame, docile, harmony, faithful. Has been given as “beautiful
worm”; I prefer “faithful caterpillar”.
Unthuk Banyu-unthuk means “foam”, banyu means “water”. A pamor motif.
Untu walang-grasshopper teeth.
Uwer-Also 'wewer';the ring between the handle and the blade in a Balinese  keris.       
Wiji Timun-Cucumber seed.
Wlagri- the metal ring that is sometimes fitted along with a godi.
Wos Wutah-Scattered rice grains. The most common random pamor.
-blue-black. A gonjo wulung is one without pamor.
Yudowinatan-The most popular form of Solo ukiran.